Cyclopædia or an universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences
ABSCISSE PDF Print E-mail
Mathematics - Geometry
Written by Ephraim Chambers   
Thursday, 01 January 1728 09:00
ABSCISSE, ABSCISSA, in Conies, a Part of the Diameter, or transverse Axis of a Conic Section, intercepted between the Vertex or Tome other fix'd Point, and a Semiordinate. See CONIC Section.

Such are the Lines AP, AP, &c. (Tab. Conics, Fig. 20.) intercepted between the Vertex A and the Semiordinates PM, PM, &c.

They are called Abscisses of the Latin Absindo, I cut off ; as being Parts cut off from the Axis. Others call 'em Sagittæ, Arrows. See SAGITTA.

In the Parabola, the Absciss is a third Proportional to the Parameter and Semiordinate ; and the Parameter a third Proportional to the Absciss and Semiordinate. See Paraboia, Semiordinate, &c.
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ABSTINENCE PDF Print E-mail
Unclassified - Theology
Written by Ephraim Chambers   
Thursday, 01 January 1728 09:00
Abstinencia, the Habit of restraining or containing one's self from some Pleasure, or Enjoyment. See PLEASURE.

The Word is compounded of the Latin abs, from ; and teneo, I hold.

The Jews were oblig'd to abstain from their Wives at certain Seasons.---— The same is enjoin'd in the Apostolical Constitutions, on all fast and meagre Days ; and the Church of England recommends certain Days of Fasting and Abstinence.---— The Great Fast, says St. Augustin, is to abstain from Sin. See FAST.

The antient Athletæ liv'd in a perpetual Abstinence from all kind of sensible Pleasure, to render their Bodies more robust and hardy. See ATHLETA.

Abstinence is particularly used for a spare Diet, or a flender parsimonious use of Food. See FOOD, and DIET.
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ABDICATION PDF Print E-mail
Unclassified - Unclassified
Written by Ephraim Chambers   
Thursday, 01 January 1728 09:00
the Act whereby a Magistrate, or Person in Office renounces and gives up the same, for himself and his Heirs. See RENUNCIATION.

Abdication is frequently confounded with Resignation ; but, strictly speaking, there is a difference : Abdication being done purely and simply ; whereas Resignation is done in favour of some third Person. See RESIGNATION.

In this Sense, Diocletian, and Charles V. are said to have abdicated the Crown; Philip IV. of Spain resign'd it. The Parliament voted King James's Violation of the Laws, and his quitting the Kingdom, without providing for the due Administration of Affairs in his absence, to import an Abdication of the Crown.
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ASTRONOMY PDF Print E-mail
Mix'd mathematics - Astronomy
Written by Ephraim Chambers   
Thursday, 01 January 1728 09:00
Astronomia, the Doctrine of the Heavens, and the Phenomena thereof. See HEAVEN.

Astronomy is properly a mix'd mathematical Science, whereby we become acquainted with the Cadestial Bodies, their Magnitudes, Motions, Distances, Periods, Eclipses, &c. See MATHEMATICKS.

Some understand the Word Astronomy in a more extensive Sense; including under it the Theory of the Universe, and the primary Laws of Nature &c. In which Sense it rather seems a Branch of Phystcks than of Mathematicks. See PHYSICKS, SYSTEM, NATURE, &c.
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ABDUCTOR PDF Print E-mail
Anatomy - Anatomy
Written by Ephraim Chambers   
Thursday, 01 January 1728 09:00
or ABDUCENT, in Anatomy, a Name common to several Muscles, whose Action is the withdrawing, opening, or pulling back the Parts they are fix'd to. See MUSCLE.

The Name is Latin, compounded of ab, from, and duco, I draw : Their Antagonists are call'd Adductores. See ADDUCTOR.

ABDUCTOR Auricularis, or of the little Finger, arises from the Annular Ligament, and the third and fourth Bones of the Carpus in the second Rank ; and is inserted externally into the first Bone of the little Finger : it serves to draw that Finger from the rest. See FINGER.
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